AudioDateDownLeftRightUpIconClosefacebookReportGallerySettingsGiftLanguageGridListMapMenunoAudionoPhotoPhotoPlayPlusSearchStartwitterUserVideo

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

Order:
Passeriformes
Family:
Parulidae
Sections

References

Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).

Alström, P. and P. Colston. (1991). A Field Guide to the rare birds of Britain and Europe. London: Harper Collins.

Ambuel, B. and S. A. Temple. (1983). Area-dependent changes in the bird communities and vegetation of southern Wisconsin forests. Ecology 64:1057-1068.

American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Check-list of North American Birds, 6th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

American Ornithologists' Union. (1949). Twenty-fourth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 66 (3):281-285.

American Ornithologists' Union. (1957). Check-list of North American birds, 5th ed. Washington, D.C: Am. Ornithol. Union.

Amos, E. J. R. (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Bermuda. Warwick, Bermuda: E. J. R. Amos.

Andrews, P. and R. Righter (1992). Colorado birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, CO.

Angelier, F., C. M. Tonra, R. L. Holberton and P. P. Marra. (2010). How to capture wild passerine species to study baseline corticosterone levels. Journal of Ornithology 151 (2):415-422.

Angelier, F., C. M. Tonra, R. L. Holberton and P. P. Marra. (2011). Short-term changes in body condition in relation to habitat and rainfall abundance in American Redstarts Setophaga ruticilla during the non-breeding season. Journal of Avian Biology 42 (4):335-341.

Angelier, F., C. M. Vleck, R. L. Holberton and P. P. Marra. (2013). Telomere length, non-breeding habitat and return rate in male American Redstarts. Functional Ecology 27 (2):342-350.

Angelier, F., C. M. Vleck, R. L. Holberton and P. P. Marra. (2015). Bill size correlates with telomere length in male American Redstarts. Journal of Ornithology 156 (2):525-531.

Angelier, F., R. L. Holberton and P. P. Marra. (2009). Does stress response predict return rate in a migratory bird species? A study of American Redstarts and their non-breeding habitat. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 276 (1672):3545-3551.

Arendt, W. J. (1992). "Status of North American migrant landbirds in the Caribbean region: a summary." In Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant landbirds., edited by J. M. Hagan III and D. W. Johnston, 143-171. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Arlt, D., M. Low and T. Pärt. (2013). Effect of geolocators on migration and subsequent breeding performance of a long-distance passerine migrant. PLoS One 8 (12):e82316.

Aubrecht, G., W. Huber and A. Weissenhofer. (2013). Coincidence or benefit? The use of Marasmius (horse-hair fungus) filaments in bird nests. Avian Biology Research 6 (1):26-30.

Baker, B. W. (1944a). Nesting of the American Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 56:83-90.

Bakermans, M. H., A. C. Vitz, A. D. Rodewald and C. G. Rengifo. (2009). Migratory songbird use of shade coffee in the Venezuelan Andes with implications for conservation of Cerulean Warbler. Biological Conservation 142 (11):2476-2483.

Bakken, L. E. and G. S. Bakken. (1977). American Redstart feeding by artificial light. Auk 94:373-374.

Baldwin, S., S. Prentis, H. C. Oberholser and L. G. Worley. (1931). Measurement of birds. Cleve. Mus. of Nat. Hist. 2:1-165.

Barrowclough, G. F. and K. W. Corbin. (1978). Genetic variation and differentiation in the Parulidae. Auk 95:691-702.

Bayne, E. M. and K. A. Hobson. (2002a). Annual survival of adult American Redstarts and Ovenbirds in the southern boreal forest. Wilson Bulletin 114 (3):358-367.

Behle, W. H., E. D. Sorenson and C. M. White. (1985). Utah birds: a revised checklist. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City: Utah Mus. Nat. Hist.

Bennett, S. E. (1980). "Interspecific competition and the niche of the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) in wintering and breeding communities." In Migrant birds in the neotropics: ecology, behavior, distribution, and conservation., edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, 319-335. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Bent, A. C. (1953b). Life histories of North American wood warblers. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 203.

Bisson, I.-A., P. P. Marra, Jr. Burtt, E. H., M. Sikaroodi and P. M. Gillevet. (2007). A molecular comparison of plumage and soil bacteria across biogeographic, ecological, and taxonomic scales. Microbial Ecology 54 (1):65-81.

Bochkov, A. V. and T. D. Galloway. (2004). New species and records of cheyletoid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea) from birds in Canada. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77 (1):26-44.

Boulet, M. and D. R. Norris. (2006). "Introduction: The past and present of migratory connectivity." In Patterns of migratory connectivity in two Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds: New insights from intrinsic markers, edited by M. Boulet and D. R. Norris, 1-13. Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Union.

Bowlin, M. S., I.-A. Bisson, J. Shamoun-Baranes, J. D. Reichard, N. Sapir, P. P. Marra, T. H. Kunz, D. S. Wilcove, A. Hedenström, C. G. Guglielmo, S. Akesson, M. Ramenofsky and M. Wikelski. (2010). Grand challenges in migration biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology 50 (3):261-279.

Boxall, P. C. (1983). Observations suggesting parental division of labor by American Redstarts. Wilson Bulletin 95:673-674.

Brauning, D. (1992a). Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, PA: Univ. Pittsburgh Press.

Brown, D. R., T. W. Sherry and J. Harris. (2011a). Hurricane Katrina impacts the breeding bird community in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Pearl River basin, Louisiana. Forest Ecology and Management 261 (1):111-119.

Browning, M. R. (2002). Taxonomic comments on selected species of birds from the Pacific Northwest. Ore. Birds 28:69-82.

Buehler, David A., Paul B. Hamel and Than Boves. (2013). Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.511

Burleigh, T. D. (1944a). Description of a new hybrid warbler. Auk 61:291-293.

Burleigh, T. D. and H. S. Peters. (1948). Geographic variation in Newfoundland birds. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 61:111-126.

Butcher, G. S. (1992). Needs assessment: monitoring Neotropical migratory birds. Ithaca, NY: Monitoring Working Group, Partners in Flight. Cornell Lab. Ornithol.

Cadman, M. D., D. A. Sutherland, G. G. Beck, D. Lepage and A. R. Couturier. (2007a). Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario 2001-2005. Toronto: Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature.

Cadman, M. D., P. F. J. Eagles and F. M. Helleiner. (1987). Atlas of breeding birds of Ontario. Waterloo: Univ. of Waterloo Press.

Chamberlain, C. P., J. D. Blum, R. T. Holmes, X. Feng, T. W. Sherry and G. R. Graves. (1997). The use of isotope tracers for identifying populations of migratory birds. Oecologia 109 (1):132-141.

Chandler, C. C., D. I. King and R. B. Chandler. (2012). Do mature forest birds prefer early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period? Forest Ecology and Management 264:1-9.

Chesser, R. T., R. C. Banks, F. K. Barker, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., J. D. Rising, D. F. Stotz and K. Winker. (2011). Fifty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 128 (3):600-613.

Churchill, J. L. and S. J. Hannon. (2010). Off-territory movement of male American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) in a fragmented agricultural landscape is related to song rate, mating status and access to females. Journal of Ornithology 151 (1):33-44.

Cimprich, D. A., M. S. Woodrey and F. R. Moore. (2005). Passerine migrants respond to variation in predation risk during stopover. Animal Behaviour 69:1173-1179.

Colbeck, G. J., H. L. Gibbs, P. P. Marra, K. Hobson and M. S. Webster. (2008). Phylogeography of a widespread North American migratory songbird (Setophaga ruticilla). Journal of Heredity 99 (5):453-463.

Commisso, F. W. (1986). "Ecomorphology of locomotion of the parulid hind limb." In Acta XIX Congr. Intl. Ornithol., 2254-2264.

Confer, J. L. and R. T. Holmes. (1995). Neotropical migrants in undisturbed and human-altered forests of Jamaica. Wilson Bulletin 107:577-589.

Cooper, N. W., T. W. Sherry and P. P. Marra. (2014). Modeling three-dimensional space use and overlap in birds. Auk 131 (4):681-693.

Cooper, N. W., T. W. Sherry and P. P. Marra. (2015). Experimental reduction of winter food decreases body condition and delays migration in a long-distance migratory bird. Ecology 96 (7):1933-1942.

Coulson, J. O. (2001). Swallow-tailed Kites carry passerine nests containing nestlings to their own nests. Wilson Bulletin 113 (3):340-342.

Cramp, S. and C. M. Perrins. (1994b). The birds of the western Palearctic. Vol. 9. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.

Curson, J., D. Quinn and D. Beadle. (1994). Warblers of the Americas: an identification guide. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Cyr, A. and M. Darveau. (1996). "American Redstart, Paruline flam- boyante, Setophaga ruticilla." In The breeding birds of Quebec., edited by J. Gauthier and Y. Aubry, 916-919. Environment Canada Quebec Region, Montreal: Can. Wildl. Serv.

Date, E. M. and R. E. Lemon. (1993). Sound transmission: a basis for dialects in bird song? Behaviour 124:291-312.

De Schauensee, R. M. and W. H. Phelps. (1978). A Guide to the Birds of Venezuela. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Debruyne, C. A., J. M. Hughes and D. J. T. Hussell. (2006). Age-related timing and patterns of prebasic body molt in wood warblers (Parulidae). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118 (3):374-379.

DeGraaf, R. M. (1985). "Breeding bird assemblages in New England northern hardwoods." In Proceedings: the impact of timber management practices on nongame birds in Vermont., edited by R. J. Regan and D. E. Capen, 5-22. Montpelier: Vermont Fish and Wildlife Dept.

Dugger, K. M., J. Faaborg, W. J. Arendt and K. A. Hobson. (2004). Understanding survival and abundance of overwintering warblers: Does rainfall matter? Condor 106 (4):744-760.

Dunn, J. L. and K. L. Garrett. (1997). A Field Guide to the warblers of North America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Durden, L. A., J. H. Oliver and A. A. Kinsey. (2001). Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a Georgia Barrier Island. Journal of Medical Entomology 38 (2):231-236.

Durrant, K. L., P. P. Marra, S. M. Fallon, G. J. Colbeck, H. L. Gibbs, K. A. Hobson, D. R. Norris, B. Bernik, V. L. Lloyd and R. C. Fleischer. (2008). Parasite assemblages distinguish populations of a migratory passerine on its breeding grounds. Journal of Zoology 274 (4):318-326.

Dwight, J., Jr. (1900). The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13:73-360.

Eaton, S. W. (1953). Wood-warblers wintering in Cuba. Wilson Bulletin 65 (3):169-174.

Eaton, S. W., P. D. O'Connor, M. B. Osterhaus and B. Z. Anicete. (1963). "Some osteological adaptations in Parulidae." In Proc. XIII Intl. Ornithol. Cong., edited by C. G. Sibley, 71-83. Baton Rouge: Am. Ornithol. Union.

Erskine, A. J. (1992a). Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime Provinces. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia Museum.

Evans, P. G. H. (1990a). Birds of the eastern Caribbean. London: Macmillan Press, Ltd.

Evans, W. R. (2005). Monitoring avian night flight calls - the new century ahead. Passenger Pigeon 67 (1):15-24.

Evans, W. R. and M. O'Brien. (2002). Flight calls of migratory birds: eastern North American landbirds [CD-ROM]. Mecklenburg, NY: Old Bird Inc.

Ewert, D. N. and R. A. Askins. (1991). Flocking behavior of migratory warblers in winter in the Virgin Islands. Condor 93:864-868.

Faaborg, J. and W. J. Arendt. (1984). Population sizes and philopatry of winter resident warblers in Puerto Rico. J. Field Ornithol. 55:376-378.

Faaborg, J., R. T. Holmes, A. D. Anders, K. L. Bildstein, K. M. Dugger, Jr. Gauthreaux, S. A., P. Heglund, K. A. Hobson, A. E. Jahn, D. H. Johnson, S. C. Latta, D. J. Levey, P. P. Marra, C. L. Merkord, E. Nol, S. I. Rothstein, T. W. Sherry, T. S. Sillett, F. R. Thompson III and N. Warnock. (2010b). Recent advances in understanding migration systems of New World land birds. Ecological Monographs 80 (1):3-48.

Falk, K. J., E. Nol and D. M. Burke. (2011). Weak effect of edges on avian nesting success in fragmented and forested landscapes in Ontario, Canada. Landscape Ecology 26 (2):239-251.

Ficken, M. S. (1961). Redstarts and cowbirds. Kingbird 11:83-85.

Ficken, M. S. (1962a). Agonistic behavior and territory in the American Redstart. Auk 79:607-632.

Ficken, M. S. (1962b). Maintenance activities of the American Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 74:153-165.

Ficken, M. S. (1963a). Courtship of the American Redstart. Auk 80:307-317.

Ficken, M. S. (1964). Nest-site selection in the American Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 76:189.

Ficken, M. S. and R. W. Ficken. (1962b). The comparative ethology of the wood-warblers: a review. Living Bird 1:103-122.

Ficken, M. S. and R. W. Ficken. (1965). Comparative ethology of the Chestnut-sided Warbler, Yellow Warbler, and American Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 77:363-375.

Ficken, M. S. and R. W. Ficken. (1967). Age-specific differences in the breeding behavior and ecology of the American Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 79:188-199.

Fletcher, Jr., R. J. (2007). Species interactions and population density mediate the use of social cues for habitat selection. Journal of Animal Ecology 76 (3):598-606.

Fletcher, Jr., R. J. (2008). Social information and community dynamics: Nontarget effects from simulating social cues for management. Ecological Applications 18 (7):1764-1773.

Foy, R. W. (1974). Aging and sexing American Redstarts in fall. Eastern Bird Banding Association News 37:43-44.

Francis, C. M. and F. Cooke. (1986). Differential timing of spring migration in wood warblers (Parulidae). Auk 103:548-556.

Freymann, B. P. (2008). Physical properties of fungal rhizomorphs of marasmioid basidiomycetes used as nesting material by birds. Ibis 150 (2):395-399.

Friedmann, H. and L. F. Kiff. (1985). The parasitic cowbirds and their hosts. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 2 (4):226-302.

Garvin, M. C., P. P. Marra and S. K. Crain. (2004b). Prevalence of hematozoa in overwintering American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla): No evidence for local transmission. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40 (1):115-118.

George, T. L., R. J. Harrigan, J. A. LaManna, D. F. DeSante, J. F. Saracco and T. B. Smith. (2015). Persistent impacts of West Nile virus on North American bird populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (46):14290-14294.

Germain, R. R. and A. E. McKellar. Species account: American Redstart/Paruline flamboyante (Setophaga ruticilla) (2010). Available from http://opinicon.wordpress.com/species-accounts/american-redstart/.

Germain, R. R., M. W. Reudink, P. P. Marra and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2010b). Carotenoid-based male plumage predicts parental investment in the American Redstart. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122 (2):318-325.

Germain, R. R., M. W. Reudink, P. P. Marra, P. T. Boag and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2012). Delayed maturation of multiple signals in a migratory songbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66 (3):419-431.

Germain, R. R., P. P. Marra, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2010a). Adult-like plumage coloration predicts winter territory quality and timing of arrival on the breeding grounds of yearling male American Redstarts. Condor 112 (4):676-682.

Getty, S. R. (1993). Call-notes of North American wood warblers. Birding 25:158-168.

Gibson, D. D. and J. J. Withrow. (2015). Inventory of the species and subspecies of Alaska birds, second edition. Western Birds 46 (2):94-185.

Gilligan, J., D. Rogers, M. Smith and A. Contreras. (1994). Birds of Oregon: status and distribution. McMinnville, OR: Cinclus Publ.

González-Prieto, A. M., and K. A. Hobson. (2013). Environmental conditions on wintering grounds and during migration influence spring nutritional condition and arrival phenology of Neotropical migrants at a northern stopover site. Journal of Ornithology 154: 1067-1078.

Granlund, J., G. A. McPeek and R. J. Adams. (1994). The birds of Michigan. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Gray III, D. R. (1973). Report on aging and sexing criteria for American Redstart. Eastern Bird Banding Association News 36:143-146.

Greenberg, R. (1992b). "Forest migrant in non-forest habitats on the Yucatán Peninsula." In Ecology and conservation of Neotropical landbirds., edited by J. M. Hagan and D. W. Johnston, 273-286. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Greenberg, R. and P. P. Marra. (2005). "The renaissance of migratory bird biology: A synthesis." In Birds of two worlds: The ecology and evolution of migration, edited by R. Greenberg and P. P. Marra, 437-443. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Griffiths, E. T., S. C. Keen, M. Lanzone and A. Farnsworth. (2016). Can nocturnal flight calls of the migrating songbird, American Redstart, encode sexual dimorphism and individual identity? PLoS ONE 11 (7):e0156578. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160596

Griscom, L. and Jr. Sprunt, A. (1957). The warblers of America: a popular account of the wood-warblers as they occur in the Western Hemisphere. New York: Doubleday.

Hahn, B. A. and E. D. Silverman. (2006). Social cues facilitate habitat selection: American Redstarts establish breeding territories in response to song. Biology Letters 2 (3):337-340.

Hall, G. A. (1981). Fall migration patterns of wood warblers in the southern Appalachians. J. Field Ornithol. 52:43-49.

Hamel, P. B., Jr. LeGrand, H. E., M. R. Lennartz and Jr. Gauthreaux, S. A. (1982). Bird habitat relationships on southeastern forest lands. Asheville, NC: U.S. For. Serv.

Hannon, S. J., S. Wilson and C. A. McCallum. (2009). Does cowbird parasitism increase predation risk to American Redstart nests? Oikos 118 (7):1035-1043.

Harrison, X. A., J. D. Blount, R. Inger, D. R. Norris and S. Bearhop. (2011). Carry-over effects as drivers of fitness differences in animals. Journal of Animal Ecology 80 (1):4-18.

Hauer, G., S. Cumming, F. Schmiegelow, W. Adamowicz, M. Weber and R. Jagodzinski. (2010). Tradeoffs between forestry resource and conservation values under alternate policy regimes: A spatial analysis of the western Canadian boreal plains. Ecological Modelling 221 (21):2590-2603.

Hickey, J. J. (1940). Territorial aspects of the American Redstart. Auk 57:255-256.

Hill, N. P. and J. M. Hagan III. (1991). Population trends of some northeastern North American landbirds: a half-century of data. Wilson Bulletin 103:165-182.

Hobson, K. A. and M. A. Villard. (1998). Forest fragmentation affects the behavioral response of American Redstarts to the threat of cowbird parasitism. Condor 100 (2):389-394.

Hobson, K. A., S. L. Van Wilgenburg, J. Faaborg, J. D. Toms, C. Rengifo, A. Llanes Sosa, Y. Aubry and R. Brito Aguilar. (2014b). Connecting breeding and wintering grounds of Neotropical migrant songbirds using stable hydrogen isotopes: A call for an isotopic atlas of migratory connectivity. Journal of Field Ornithology 85 (3):237-257.

Holmes, R. T. (1986). Foraging patterns of forest birds: male-female differences. Wilson Bulletin 98:196-213.

Holmes, R. T. (2007). Understanding population change in migratory songbirds: Long-term and experimental studies of Neotropical migrants in breeding and wintering areas. Ibis 149 (2):2-13.

Holmes, R. T. (2011). Avian population and community processes in forest ecosystems: Long-term research in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Forest Ecology and Management 262 (1):20-32.

Holmes, R. T. and G. E. Likens. (2016). Hubbard Brook: The story of a forest ecosystem. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Holmes, R. T. and J. C. Schultz. (1988). Food availability for forest birds: effects of prey distribution and abundance on bird foraging. Can. J. Zool. 66:720-728.

Holmes, R. T. and S. K. Robinson. (1981). Tree species preferences of foraging insectivorous birds in a northern hardwood forest. Oecologia 48:31-35.

Holmes, R. T. and T. W. Sherry. (1988). Assessing population trends of New Hampshire forest birds: local versus regional patterns. Auk 105:756-768.

Holmes, R. T. and T. W. Sherry. (1992). "Site fidelity of migratory warblers in temperate breeding and neotropical wintering areas: implications for population dynamics, habitat selection, and conservation." In Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds., edited by J. M. Hagan Iii and D. W. Johnston, 563-575. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Holmes, R. T. and T. W. Sherry. (2001). Thirty-year bird population trends in an unfragmented temperate deciduous forest: importance of habitat change. Auk 118:589-609.

Holmes, R. T., R. E. Bonney, Jr., and S. W. Pacala. (1979b). Guild structure of the Hubbard Brook bird community: a multivariate approach. Ecology 60:512-520.

Holmes, R. T., T. W. Sherry and F. W. Sturges. (1986). Bird community dynamics in a temperate deciduous forest: long-term trends at Hubbard Brook. Ecol. Monogr. 56:201-220.

Holmes, R. T., T. W. Sherry and L. R. Reitsma. (1989). Population structure, territoriality, and overwinter survival of two migrant warbler species in Jamaica. Condor 91:545-561.

Holmes, R. T., T. W. Sherry and S. E. Bennett. (1978a). Diurnal and individual variation in the foraging behavior of American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Oecologia 36:141-149.

Hostetler, J. A., T. S. Sillett and P. P. Marra. (2015). Full-annual-cycle population models for migratory birds. Auk 132 (2):433-449.

Howe, H. F. (1974a). A case of age-related territory usurpation in the American Redstart. Jack-Pine Warbler 52:92.

Howe, H. F. (1974b). Evidence for "floaters" in the American Redstart. Jack-Pine Warbler 52:91.

Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635-653.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206-210.

Hubbard, J. P. (1978). Revised check-list of the birds of New Mexico. New Mexico Ornithological Society Publication 6.

Huffman, R. D. (1997). Effects of residual overstory on bird use and aspen regeneration in aspen harvest sites in Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota. Thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Humphrey, P. S. and K. C. Parkes. (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1-31.

Hunt, P. D. (1996). Habitat selection by American Redstarts along a successional gradient in northern hardwoods forest: evaluation of habitat quality. Auk 113:875-888.

Hunt, P. D. (1998c). Evidence from a landscape population model of the importance of early successional habitat to the American Redstart. Conservation Biology 12 (6):1377-1389.

Imhof, T. A. (1976). Alabama birds, 2nd ed. University, AL: Univ. Alabama Press.

James, F. C., C. E. McCulloch and D. A. Wiedenfeld. (1996). New approaches to the analysis of population trends in land birds. Ecology 77:13-27.

Janssen, R. B. (1987). Birds in Minnesota. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press.

Jeffrey-Smith, M. (1972). Bird-watching in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: Bolivar Press.

Johnson, M. D. and T. W. Sherry. (2001). Effects of food availability on the distribution of migratory warblers among habitats in Jamaica. Journal of Animal Ecology 70 (4):546-560.

Johnson, M. D., J. L. Kellermann and A. M. Stercho. (2010d). Pest reduction services by birds in shade and sun coffee in Jamaica. Animal Conservation 13 (2):140-147.

Johnson, M. D., T. W. Sherry, A. M. Strong and A. Medori. (2005c). Migrants in Neotropical bird communities: An assessment of the breeding currency hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology 74 (2):333-341.

Johnson, M. D., T. W. Sherry, R. T. Holmes and P. P. Marra. (2006b). Assessing habitat quality for a migratory songbird wintering in natural and agricultural habitats. Conservation Biology 20 (5):1433-1444.

Johnston, D. W. and D. I. Winings. (1987). Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XXVII. The decline of forest breeding birds on Plummers Island, Maryland, and vicinity. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 100:762-768.

Jones, J., P. J. Doran and R. T. Holmes. (2003b). Climate and food synchronize regional forest bird abundances. Ecology 84:3024-3032.

Jones, K. C., K. L. Roth, K. Islam, P. B. Hamel and C. G. Smith III. (2007b). Incidence of nest material kleptoparasitism involving Cerulean Warblers. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119 (2):271-275.

Judson, K. and T. W. Sherry. Comparative study of diet and prey size of an insectivorous migratory passerine throughout its annual cycle. New Orleans: Tulane University.

Kappes, P. J., B. J. M. Stutchbury and B. E. Woolfenden. (2009). The relationship between carotenoid-based coloration and pairing, within- and extra-pair mating success in the American Redstart. Condor 111 (4):684-693.

Keast, A., L. Pearce and S. Saunders. (1995). How convergent is the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla , Parulinae) with flycatchers (Tyrannidae) in morphology and feeding behavior? Auk 112:310-325.

Keefe, M. H. (1996). Acid precipitation's effects on forest birds of the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Senior undergraduate honors thesis, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA.

Kennedy, C. M. and P. P. Marra. (2010). Matrix mediates avian movements in tropical forested landscapes: Inference from experimental translocations. Biological Conservation 143 (9):2136-2145.

Kirkconnell, A. and O. H. Garrido. (1996). La candelita Setophaga ruticilla (Aves: Parulidae) nidificando en Cuba. El Pitirre 9:5.

Klein, N. K. and K. V. Rosenberg. (1986). Feeding of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) fledglings by more than one "host" species. Auk 103:213-214.

Klicka, J., K. Burns and G. M. Spellman. (2007). Defining a monophyletic Cardinalini: A molecular perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45:1014-1032.

Klimkiewicz, M. K., B. Clapp and A. G. Futcher. (1983). Longevity records of North American birds: Remizidae through Parulinae. J. Field Ornithol. 54:287-294.

Knutson, M. G., G. J. Niemi, W. E. Newton and M. A. Friberg. (2004). Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture. Condor 106 (1):116-130.

Komar, O., B. J. O'Shea, A. T. Peterson and A. G. Navarro-Siguenza. (2005b). Evidence of latitudinal sexual segregation among migratory birds wintering in Mexico. Auk 122 (3):938-948.

La Sorte, F. A., D. Fink, W. M. Hochachka and S. Kelling. (2016). Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 283 (1823).

La Sorte, F. A., D. Fink, W. M. Hochachka, A. Farnsworth, A. D. Rodewald, K. V. Rosenberg, B. L. Sullivan, D. W. Winkler, C. Wood and S. Kelling. (2014b). The role of atmospheric conditions in the seasonal dynamics of North American migration flyways. Journal of Biogeography 41 (9):1685-1696.

La Sorte, F. A., D. Fink, W. M. Hochachka, J. P. DeLong and S. Kelling. (2013). Population-level scaling of avian migration speed with body size and migration distance for powered fliers. Ecology 94 (8):1839-1847.

La Sorte, F. A., D. Fink, W. M. Hochachka, J. P. DeLong and S. Kelling. (2014a). Spring phenology of ecological productivity contributes to the use of looped migration strategies by birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 281 (1793).

Lack, D. and P. Lack. (1972). Wintering warblers in Jamaica. Living Bird 11:129-153.

Lambert, R., R. K. Watson and K. W. Winfield. (1985). American Redstart in Lincolnshire. Br. Birds 78:245-246.

Langin, K. M., D. R. Norris, T. K. Kyser, P. P. Marra and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2006). Capital versus income breeding in a migratory passerine bird: Evidence from stable-carbon isotopes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84 (7):947-953.

Langin, K. M., M. W. Reudink, P. P. Marra, D. R. Norris, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2007). Hydrogen isotopic variation in migratory bird tissues of known origin: Implications for geographic assignment. Oecologia 152 (3):449-457.

Langin, K. M., P. P. Marra, Z. Németh, F. R. Moore, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2009). Breeding latitude and timing of spring migration in songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Avian Biology 40 (3):309-316.

Lany, N. K., M. P. Ayres, E. E. Stange, T. S. Sillett, N. L. Rodenhouse and R. T. Holmes. (2016). Breeding timed to maximize reproductive success for a migratory songbird: The importance of phenological asynchrony. Oikos 125 (5):656-666.

Latta, S. C. and Jr. Wunderle, J. M. (1996b). The composition and foraging ecology of mixed-species flocks in pine forests of Hispaniola. Condor 98:595-607.

Latta, S. C., S. Cabezas, D. A. Mejia, M. M. Paulino, H. Almonte, C. M. Miller-Butterworth and G. R. Bortolotti. (2016). Carry-over effects provide linkages across the annual cycle of a Neotropical migratory bird, the Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia motacilla. Ibis 158 (2):395-406.

Lawton, M. F. and R. O. Lawton. (1986). Heterochrony, deferred breeding, and avian sociality. Curr. Ornithol. 3:187-222.

Lefebvre, G. and B. Poulin. (1996). Seasonal abundance of migrant birds and food resources in Panamanian mangrove forests. Wilson Bulletin 108 (4):748-759.

Lefebvre, G., B. Poulin and R. McNeil. (1992). Abundance, feeding behavior, and body condition of nearctic warblers wintering in Venezuelan mangroves. Wilson Bulletin 104:400-412.

Lefebvre, G., B. Poulin and R. McNeil. (1994a). Spatial and social behavior of Nearctic warblers wintering in Venezuelan mangroves. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72 (4):757-764.

Lemon, R. E., C. W. Dobson and P. G. Clifton. (1993). Songs of American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla): sequencing rules and their relationships to repertoire size. Ethology 93:198-210.

Lemon, R. E., D. M. Weary and K. J. Norris. (1992). Male morphology and behavior correlate with reproductive success in the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 29:399-403.

Lemon, R. E., R. Cotter, R. C. MacNally and S. Monette. (1985). Song repertoires and song sharing by American Redstarts. Condor 87:457-470.

Lemon, R. E., S. Monette and D. Roff. (1987). Song repertoires of American warblers (Parulinae): honest advertising or assessment? Ethology 74:265-284.

Lemon, R. E., S. Perreault and D. M. Weary. (1994). Dual strategies of song development in American Redstarts, Setophaga ruticilla. Anim. Behav. 47:317-329.

Lemon, R. E., S. Perreault and G. A. Lozano. (1996). Breeding dispersions and site fidelity of American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Can. J. Zool. 74:2238-2247.

Lent, R. A. and D. E. Capen. (1995). Effects of small-scale habitat disturbance on the ecology of breeding birds in a Vermont (USA) hardwood forest. Ecography 18 (2):97-108.

Lopez-Ornat, A. and R. Greenberg. (1990). Sexual segregation by habitat in migratory warblers in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Auk 107:539-543.

Lovette, I. J. and R. T. Holmes. (1995). Foraging behavior of American Redstarts in breeding and wintering areas: implications for relative food availability. Condor 97:782-791.

Lovette, I. J. and W. M. Hochachka. (2006). Simultaneous effects of phylogenetic niche conservatism and competition on avian community structure. Ecology 87 (Sp7):14-28.

Lovette, I. J., J. L. Perez-Eman, J. P. Sullivan, R. C. Banks, I. Fiorentino, S. Cordoba-Cordoba, M. Echeverry-Galvis, F. K. Barker, K. J. Burns, J. Klicka, S. M. Lanyon and E. Bermingham. (2010). A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (2):753-770.

Lowery, Jr., G. H. (1974). Louisiana Birds. Revised 3rd Edition. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Lozano, G. A., S. Perreault and R. E. Lemon. (1996). Age, arrival date and reproductive success of male American Redstarts Setophaga ruticilla. J. Avian Biol. 27:164-170.

Lynch, J. F. (1992). "Distribution of overwintering Nearctic migrants in Yucatán Peninsula, II: use of native and human-modified vegetation." In Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant landbirds., edited by J. M. Hagan Iii and D. W. Johnston, 178-196. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Macnally, R. C. and R. E. Lemon. (1985). Repeat and serial singing modes in American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla): a test of functional hypotheses. Z. Tierpsychol. 69:191-202.

Mannan, R. W. (1979). American Redstart assists at Yellow Warbler nest. Bird-Banding 50:263.

Manuwal, D. A. (1986). Characteristics of bird assemblages along linear riparian zones in western Montana. Murrelet 67:10-18.

Manuwal, D. A. (2012). Bird populations in Montana linear riparian areas at 12, 28, and 40 year intervals. Northwest Science 86 (1):71-81.

Marini, K. L. D., A. E. McKellar, L. M. Ratcliffe, P. P. Marra and M. W. Reudink. (2015). Age-related change in carotenoid-based plumage of the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Journal of Ornithology 156 (3):783-793.

Marra, P. P. (2000). The role of behavioral dominance in structuring patterns of habitat occupancy in a migrant bird during the nonbreeding season. Behavioral Ecology 11 (3):299-308.

Marra, P. P. and R. L. Holberton. (1998). Corticosterone levels as indicators of habitat quality: Effects of habitat segregation in a migratory bird during the non-breeding season. Oecologia 116 (1-2):284-292.

Marra, P. P. and R. T. Holmes. (2001). Consequences of dominance-mediated habitat segregation in American Redstarts during the nonbreeding season. Auk 118 (1):92-104.

Marra, P. P., C. E. Studds and M. Webster. (2010). "Migratory connectivity." In Encyclopedia of animal behavior, edited by M. D. Breed and J. Moore, 455-461. Cambridge: Academic Press.

Marra, P. P., C. E. Studds, S. Wilson, T. S. Sillett, T. W. Sherry and R. T. Holmes. (2015). Non-breeding season habitat quality mediates the strength of density-dependence for a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 282 (1811):1-8.

Marra, P. P., D. R. Norris, S. M. Haig, M. Webster and J. A. Royle. (2006). "Chapter 7. Migratory connectivity." In Connectivity conservation, edited by K. R. Crooks and M. Sanjayan, 157-183. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Marra, P. P., K. A. Hobson and R. T. Holmes. (1998). Linking winter and summer events in a migratory bird by using stable-carbon isotopes. Science 282:1884-1886.

Marra, P. P., T. W. Sherry and R. T. Holmes. (1993). Territorial exclusion by a Neotropical migrant bird in winter: a removal experiment with American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) in Jamaica. Auk 110:565-572.

Marshall, M. R., J. A. DeCecco, A. B. Williams, G. A. Gale and R. J. Cooper. (2003b). Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period. Forest Ecology and Management 183 (1-3):127-135.

Martin, P. R., J. R. Fotheringham, L. Ratcliffe and R. J. Robertson. (1996a). Response of American redstarts (suborder Passeri) and least flycatchers (suborder Tyranni) to heterospecific playback: The role of song in aggressive interactions and interference competition. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39 (4):227-235.

Martin, T. E. and J. R. Karr. (1986). Patch utilization by migrating birds: Resource oriented? Ornis Scandinavica 17 (2):165-174.

Martin, T. E. and J. R. Karr. (1990). Behavioral plasticity of foraging maneuvers of migratory warblers: multiple selection periods for niches? Stud. Avian Biol. 13:353-359.

Martin, T. G., I. Chadès, P. Arcese, P. P. Marra, H. P. Possingham and D. R. Norris. (2007f). Optimal conservation of migratory species. PLoS One 2 (8):e751.

Matysioková, B., A. Cockburn and V. Remeš. (2011). Male incubation feeding in songbirds responds differently to nest predation risk across hemispheres. Animal Behaviour 82 (6):1347-1356.

Maurer, B. A. and R. C. Whitmore. (1981). Foraging of five bird species in two forests with different vegetation structure. Wilson Bulletin 93:478-490.

Mayr, E. and L. L. Short. (1970). Species taxa of North American birds, a contribution to comparative systematics. Vol. 9: Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club.

McCallum, C. A. and S. J. Hannon. (2001). Accipiter predation of American Redstart nestlings. Condor 103 (1):192-194.

McCarthy, E. M. (2006). Handbook of avian hybrids of the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McGraw, K. J., J. Hudon, G. E. Hill and R. S. Parker. (2005b). A simple and inexpensive chemical test for behavioral ecologists to determine the presence of carotenoid pigments in animal tissues. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 57 (4):391-397.

McKellar, A. E., M. W. Reudink, P. P. Marra, L. M. Ratcliffe and S. Wilson. (2015). Climate and density influence annual survival and movement in a migratory songbird. Ecology and Evolution 5 (24):S892-S904.

McKellar, A. E., P. P. Marra and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2013a). Starting over: Experimental effects of breeding delay on reproductive success in early-arriving male American Redstarts. Journal of Avian Biology 44 (5):495-503.

McKellar, A. E., P. P. Marra, P. T. Boag and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2014). Form, function and consequences of density dependence in a long-distance migratory bird. Oikos 123 (3):356-364.

McKellar, A. E., P. P. Marra, S. J. Hannon, C. E. Studds and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2013b). Winter rainfall predicts phenology in widely separated populations of a migrant songbird. Oecologia 172 (2):595-605.

McNair, D. B. and W. Post. (1993b). Supplement to "Status and distribution of South Carolina birds.". Charleston, SC: Charleston Mus. Ornithol. Contr. no. 8.

McNeil, R. (1982). Winter resident repeats and returns of austral and boreal migrant birds banded in Venezuela. J. Field Ornithol. 53:125-132.

Meehan, T. D., J. T. Giermakowski and P. M. Cryan. (2004). GIS-based model of stable hydrogen isotope ratios in North American growing-season precipitation for use in animal movement studies. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 40 (4):291-300.

Mengel, R. M. (1965b). The birds of Kentucky, Ornithol. Monogr. 3. Washington, D.C.: Amer. Ornith. Union.

Mills, A. M. (2006). Winter range compression of migrants in Central America. Journal of Avian Biology 37 (1):41-51.

Monson, G. and A. R. Phillips. (1964). A check-list of the birds of Arizona. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

Moore, F. R., R. J. Smith and R. Sandberg. (2005). "Stopover ecology of intercontinental migrants: En route problems and consequences for reproductive performance." In Birds of two worlds: The ecology and evolution of migration, edited by R. Greenberg and P. P. Marra, 251-261. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Morris, M. M. J. and R. E. Lemon. (1988a). American Redstart nest placement in southwestern New Brunswick. Can. J. Zool. 66:212-216.

Morris, M. M. J. and R. E. Lemon. (1988b). Mate choice in American Redstarts: by territory quality? Can. J. Zool. 66:2255-2261.

Morris, S. R., D. W. Holmes and M. E. Richmond. (1996). A ten-year study of the stopover patterns of migratory passerines during fall migration on Appeldore Island, Maine. Condor 98:395-409.

Morris, S. R., M. E. Richmond and D. W. Holmes. (1994). Patterns of stopover by warblers during spring and fall migration on Appledore Island, Maine. Wilson Bulletin 106 (4):703-718.

Morse, D. H. (1970b). Ecological aspects of some mixed species foraging flocks of birds. Ecol. Monogr. 40:119-168.

Morse, D. H. (1973). The foraging of small populations of Yellow Warblers and American Redstarts. Ecology 54:346-355.

Morse, D. H. (1993). "Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens)." In The birds of North America, No. 55, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Washington, D.C: Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, PA., and Am. Ornithol. Union.

Murphy, M. T., A. Pierce, J. Shoen, K. L. Murphy, J. A. Campbell and D. A. Hamilton. (2001a). Population structure and habitat use by overwintering neotropical migrants on a remote oceanic island. Biological Conservation 102 (3):333-345.

Nichols, J. D., B. R. Noon, S. L. Stokes and J. E. Hines. (1981). Remarks on the use of mark-recapture methodology in estimating avian population size. Stud. Avian Biol. 6:121-136.

Nordell, C. J., S. Haché, E. M. Bayne, P. Sólymos, K. R. Foster, C. M. Godwin, R. Krikun, P. Pyle and K. A. Hobson. (2016). Within-site variation in feather stable hydrogen isotope (δ2Hf) values of boreal songbirds: Implications for assignment to molt origin. PLoS ONE 11 (11):e0163957.

Norris, D. R. and P. P. Marra. (2007). Seasonal interactions, habitat quality, and population dynamics in migratory birds. Condor 109 (3):535-547.

Norris, D. R., M. B. Wunder and M. Boulet. (2006a). Perspectives on migratory connectivity. Ornithological Monographs 61:79-88.

Norris, D. R., P. P. Marra, G. J. Bowen, L. M. Ratcliffe, J. A. Royle and T. K. Kyser. (2006b). Migratory connectivity of a widely distributed songbird, the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Ornithological Monographs 61:14-28.

Norris, D. R., P. P. Marra, R. Montgomerie, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2004b). Reproductive effort, molting latitude, and feather color in a migratory songbird. Science 306 (5705):2249-2250.

Norris, D. R., P. P. Marra, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2005). Tracking habitat use of a long-distance migratory bird, the American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla, using stable-carbon isotopes in cellular blood. Journal of Avian Biology 36 (2):164-170.

Norris, D. R., P. P. Marra, T. K. Kyser, L. M. Ratcliffe and R. Montgomerie. (2007). Continent-wide variation in feather colour of a migratory songbird in relation to body condition and moulting locality. Biology Letters 3 (1):16-19.

Norris, D. R., P. P. Marra, T. K. Kyser, T. W. Sherry and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2004a). Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in a migratory bird. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond B 271:59-64.

Norton, M. R. and S. J. Hannon. (1997). Songbird response to partial-cut logging in the boreal mixedwood forest of Alberta. Can. J. For. Res. 27:44-53.

Norton, M. R., S. J. Hannon and F. K. A. Schmiegelow. (2000). Fragments are not islands: Patch vs landscape perspectives on songbird presence and abundance in a harvested boreal forest. Ecography 23 (2):209-223.

Oberholser, H. C. (1938). The bird life of Louisiana. Louisiana Dept. Conserv. Bulletin 28.

Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Omland, K. E. and T. W. Sherry. (1994). Parental care at nests of two age classes of male American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla): implications for female choice of mate. Condor 96:606-613.

Omland, K. E. and T. W. Sherry. (1995). Parental care not likely to explain poor mating success in yearling male American Redstarts. Condor 97:836-837.

Osmond, M. M., M. W. Reudink, R. R. Germain, P. P. Marra, J. J. Nocera, P. T. Boag and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2013). Relationships between carotenoid-based female plumage and age, reproduction, and mate colour in the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Canadian Journal of Zoology 91 (8):589-595.

Osterhaus, M. B. (1962). Adaptive modifications in the leg structure of some North American warblers. Am. Midland Nat. 68:474-486.

Palmer-Ball, B.L., Jr. (1996). The Kentucky Breeding Bird Atlas. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Parkes, K. C. (1961). Taxonomic relationships among the American Redstarts. Wilson Bulletin 73:374-379.

Parnell, J. F. (1969). Habitat relations of the Parulidae during spring migration. Auk 86:505-521.

Parrish, J. D. and T. W. Sherry. (1994). Sexual habitat segregation by American Redstarts wintering in Jamaica: importance of resource seasonality. Auk 111:38-49.

Pashley, D. N. and R. P. Martin. (1988). The contribution of Christmas Bird Counts to knowledge of the winter distribution of migratory warblers in the Neotropics. Am. Birds 42:1164-1176.

Peck, G. K. and R. D. James. (1987). Breeding birds of Ontario: Nidiology and distribution. Vol. 2. Passerines. Toronto: Misc. Publ. Roy. Ont. Mus.

Peele, A. M. (2015). Population regulation of a long distance migratory bird population in the non-breeding season: A test of buffer and crowding effects, Tulane University, New Orleans.

Peele, A. M., P. P. Marra, T. S. Sillett and T. W. Sherry. (2015). Combining survey methods to estimate abundance and transience of migratory birds among tropical nonbreeding habitats. Auk 132 (4):926-937.

Perreault, S., R. E. Lemon and U. Kuhnlein. (1997). Patterns and correlates of extrapair paternity in American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Behavioral Ecology 8 (6):612-621.

Peterjohn, B. G. (1989b). The birds of Ohio. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

Peterjohn, B. G. (2001). The Birds of Ohio with Breeding Bird Atlas Maps. Wooster Book Company, Wooster, OH, USA.

Peterson, R. A. The South Dakota Breeding Bird Atlas. South Dakota Ornithologists' Union, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online (version 06JUL2000). 1995.

Petrides, G. A. (1943). Notes on a captive Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 55 (3):193-194.

Post, W. and Jr. Gauthreaux, S. A. (1989). Status and distribution of South Carolina birds. Charleston, SC: Charleston Mus.

Powell, L. A. and M. G. Knutson. (2006). A productivity model for parasitized, multibrooded songbirds. Condor 108 (2):292-300.

Powell, L. L., R. C. Dobbs and P. P. Marra. (2015). Habitat and body condition influence American Redstart foraging behavior during the non-breeding season. Journal of Field Ornithology 86 (3):229-237.

Price, J. P., S. Droege and A. Price. (1995). The summer atlas of North American birds. New York: Academic Press.

Procter-Gray, E. (1991). Female-like plumage of subadult male American Redstarts does not reduce aggression from other males. Auk 108:872-879.

Procter-Gray, E. and R. T. Holmes. (1981). Adaptive significance of delayed attainment of plumage in male American Redstarts: tests of two hypotheses. Evolution 35:742-751.

Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.

Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22:49-89.

Ralph, C. J. (1978). The disorientation and possible fate of young passerine coastal migrants. Bird-Banding 49:237-247.

Ralph, C. J. (1981). Age ratios and their possible use in determining autumn routes of passerine migrants. Wilson Bulletin 93:164-188.

Ramenofsky, M. (2012). Reconsidering the role of photoperiod in relation to effects of precipitation and food availability on spring departure of a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279 (1726):15-16.

Rappole, J. H. and D. W. Warner. (1980). "Ecological aspects of migrant bird behavior in Veracruz, Mexico." In Migrant birds in the Neotropics: ecology, behavior, distribution, and conservation., edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, 353-393. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Reid, J. L., J. B. C. Harris, L. J. Martin, J. R. Barnett and R. A. Zahawi. (2008). Distribution and abundance of nearctic-neotropical songbird migrants in a forest restoration site in southern Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24 (6):685-688.

Reudink, M. W., A. E. McKellar, K. L. D. Marini, S. L. McArthur, P. P. Marra and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2015). Inter-annual variation in American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) plumage colour is associated with rainfall and temperature during moult: An 11-year study. Oecologia 178 (1):161-173.

Reudink, M. W., C. E. Studds, P. P. Marra, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2009b). Plumage brightness predicts non-breeding season territory quality in a long-distance migratory songbird, the American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla. Journal of Avian Biology 40 (1):34-41.

Reudink, M. W., P. P. Marra, K. M. Langin, C. E. Studds, T. K. Kyser and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2008). Molt-migration in the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) revisited: Explaining variation in feather ?D signatures. Auk 125 (3):742-746.

Reudink, M. W., P. P. Marra, P. T. Boag and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2009c). Plumage coloration predicts paternity and polygyny in the American Redstart. Animal Behaviour 77 (2):495-501.

Reudink, M. W., P. P. Marra, T. K. Kyser, P. T. Boag, K. M. Langin and L. M. Ratcliffe. (2009a). Non-breeding season events influence sexual selection in a long-distance migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276 (1662):1619-1626.

Ridgway, R. (1902). The birds of North and Middle America, Pt. 2. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 50.

Robbins, C. S. (1964). A guide to the aging and sexing of wood warblers (Parulidae) in fall. Eastern Bird Banding Association News 27:199-215.

Robbins, C. S. (1979). "Effect of forest fragmentation on bird populations." In Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds., edited by R. M. DeGraaf and K. E. Evans, 198-212. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-51.

Robbins, C. S., B. A. Dowell, D. K. Dawson, J. A. Coln and R. Estrada. (1992a). "Comparison of Neotropical migrant landbird populations wintering in tropical forests, isolated forest fragments, and agricultural habitats." In Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant landbirds., edited by J. M. Hagan Iii and D. W. Johnston, 207-220. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Robbins, C. S., D. D. Dawson and B. A. Dowell. (1989a). Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the Middle Atlantic States. Wildl. Monogr. 103:1-34.

Robbins, S. D., Jr. (1991). Wisconsin birdlife: population and distribution, past and present. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Roberson, D. (1980). Rare birds of the West Coast of North America. Pacific Grove, CA: Woodcock Publ.

Robinson, J. C. (1990a). An annotated checklist of the birds of Tennessee. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press.

Robinson, S. K. and R. T. Holmes. (1982). Foraging behavior of forest birds: the relationships among search tactics, diet, and habitat structure. Ecology 63:1918-1931.

Robinson, S. K. and R. T. Holmes. (1984). Effects of plant species and foliage structure on the foraging behavior of forest birds. Auk 101:672-684.

Rodewald, A. D. and R. H. Yahner. (2001). Influence of landscape composition on avian community structure and associated mechanisms. Ecology 82 (12):3493-3504.

Rodewald, P. G., M. B. Shumar, A. T. Boone, D. L. Slager, and J. S. McCormac. (2016). The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Ohio. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA. 600 pp.

Rohwer, S. and G. S. Butcher. (1988). Winter versus summer explanations of delayed plumage maturation in temperate passerine birds. Am. Nat. 131:556-572.

Rohwer, S., Jr. Klein, W. P. and S. Heard. (1983). Delayed plumage maturation and the presumed prealternate molt in American Redstarts. Wilson Bulletin 95:199-208.

Rohwer, S., S. Fretwell and D. Niles. (1980). Delayed maturation in passerine plumages and the deceptive acquisition of resources. Am. Nat. 115:400-437.

Root, R. B. (1962). Comments on the status of some western specimens of the American Redstart. Condor 64:76-77.

Root, R. B. (1967). The niche exploitation pattern of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Ecol. Monogr. 37:317-350.

Root, R. B. and R. M. Yarrow. (1967). A predator-decoy method for capturing insectivorous birds. Auk 84:423-424.

Rosenberg, K. V., J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J. D. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Camfield, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J. J. Giocomo, R. H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton and T. Will. (2016). Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee.

Rowher, S., S. D. Fretwell and D. M. Niles. (1980). Delayed maturation in passerine plumages and the deceptive acquisition of resources. Am. Nat. 115:404-437.

Ruegg, K. C., E. C. Anderson, K. L. Paxton, V. Apkenas, S. Lao, R. B. Siegel, D. F. Desante, F. Moore and T. B. Smith. (2014). Mapping migration in a songbird using high-resolution genetic markers. Molecular Ecology 23 (23):5726-5739.

Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., W. L. Kendall, J. F. Saracco and G. C. White. (2016). Overwintering strategies of migratory birds: A novel approach for estimating seasonal movement patterns of residents and transients. Journal of Applied Ecology 53 (4):1035-1045.

Runge, M. C. and P. P. Marra. (2005). "Modeling seasonal interactions in the population dynamics of migratory birds." In Birds of two worlds: The ecology and evolution of migration, edited by R. Greenberg and P. P. Marra, 375-389. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rushing, C. S., M. R. Dudash and P. P. Marra. (2015b). Habitat features and long-distance dispersal modify the use of social information by a long-distance migratory bird. Journal of Animal Ecology 84 (6):1469-1479.

Rushing, C. S., M. R. Dudash, C. E. Studds and P. P. Marra. (2015a). Annual variation in long-distance dispersal driven by breeding and non-breeding season climatic conditions in a migratory bird. Ecography 38 (10):1006-1014.

Rushing, C. S., P. P. Marra and M. R. Dudash. (2016). Winter habitat quality but not long-distance dispersal influences apparent reproductive success in a migratory bird. Ecology 97 (5):1218-1227.

Sabo, S. R. (1980). Niche and habitat relations in subalpine bird communities of the White Mountains of New Hampshire USA. Ecol. Monogr. 50:241-260.

Sallabanks, R. (1993e). Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart). Arlington, VA: Element Stewardship Abstract Report. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation Science Division, in association with the Network of Natural Heritage Programs and Conservation Data Centers.

Sallabanks, R., J. R. Walters and J. A. Collazo. (2000). Breeding bird abundance in bottomland hardwood forests: Habitat, edge, and patch size effects. Condor 102 (4):748-758.

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2013 (Version 1.30.15). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center (2014b). Available from http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/.

Saunders, A. A. 1951. A guide to bird songs. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Schwartz, P. (1964). The Northern Waterthrush in Venezuela. Living Bird 3:169-184.

Scott, C. F. (1921). Notes on land birds of southern New Hampshire. Master's Thesis, Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham.

Secunda, R. and T. W. Sherry. (1991). Polyterritorial polygyny in the American Redstart. Wilson Bulletin 103:190-203.

Semenchuk, G. P. (1992). The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Edmonton: Fed. Alberta Nat.

Shackell, N. L., R. E. Lemon and D. Roff. (1988). Song similarity between neighboring American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla): a statistical analysis. Auk 105:609-615.

Sheehy, J., C. M. Taylor, K. S. McCann and D. R. Norris. (2010). Optimal conservation planning for migratory animals: Integrating demographic information across seasons. Conservation Letters 3 (3):192-202.

Sherry, T. W. (1975). Foraging behavior and niche relationships of breeding American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) and Least Flycatchers (Empidonax minimus): the flycatcher guild in a New England hardwoods ecosystem. Master's Thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.

Sherry, T. W. (1979). Competitive interactions and adaptive strategies of American Redstarts and Least Flycatchers in a northern hardwoods forest. Auk 96:265-283.

Sherry, T. W. (1983). "Terenotriccus erythrurus (Mosqueitero colirrufo, Tontillo, Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher)." In Costa Rican natural history., edited by D. H. Janzen, 605-607. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Sherry, T. W. (1985). "Adaptation to a novel environment: food, foraging, and morphology of the Cocos Island Flycatcher." In Neotropical Ornithology., edited by P. A. Buckley, M. S. Foster, E. S. Morton, R. S. Ridgely and F. Buckley, 908-920. Ornithol. Monogr. no. 36.

Sherry, T. W. (1990). When are birds dietarily specialized? distinguishing ecological from evolutionary approaches. Stud. Avian Biol. 13:337-352.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1985). "Dispersion patterns and habitat responses of birds in northern hardwoods forest." In Habitat selection in birds., edited by M. Cody, 283-309. New York: Academic Press.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1988). Habitat selection by breeding American Redstarts in response to a dominant competitor, the Least Flycatcher. Auk 105:350-364.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1989). Age-specific social dominance affects habitat use by breeding American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla): a removal experiment. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 25:327-333.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1991). Population age structure of long-distance migratory passerine birds: variation in time and space. Acta XX Congr. Int. Ornithol.:1542-1556.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1992b). "Population fluctuations in a long-distance Neotropical migrant: demographic evidence for the importance of breeding season events in the American Redstart." In Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant landbirds., edited by J. M. Hagan Iii and D. W. Johnston, 431-442. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1995). "Summer versus winter limitation of Neotropical migrant landbird populations: what are the issues and what is the evidence?" In Ecology and management of Neotropical migratory birds: a synthesis and review of the critical issues., edited by T. Martin and D. Finch. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.

Sherry, T. W. and R. T. Holmes. (1996a). Winter habitat limitation in Neotropical-Nearctic migrant birds: implications for population dynamics and conservation. Ecology 77:36-48.

Sherry, T. W., M. D. Johnson, and A. M. Strong. (2005). Does winter food limit populations of migratory birds? Pages 414–425 in Birds of two worlds: The ecology and evolution of migration (R. Greenberg and P. P. Marra, editors). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Sherry, T. W., M. D. Johnson, K. A. Williams, J. D. Kaban, C. K. McAvoy, A. M. Hallauer, S. Rainey and S. Xu. (2016). Dietary opportunism, resource partitioning, and coffee-berry borer consumption in five migratory wood warbler species (Parulidae) wintering in Jamaican shade coffee habitat. Journal of Field Ornithology.

Sherry, T. W., S. Wilson, S. Hunter and R. T. Holmes. (2015). Impacts of nest predators and weather on reproductive success and population limitation in a long-distance migratory songbird. Journal of Avian Biology 46 (6):559-569.

Sibley, D. A. (1997). Birds of Cape May. 2nd ed. Cape May Bird Observatory, New Jersey Audubon Society.

Sillett, T. S. and R. T. Holmes. (2002). Variation in survivorship of a migratory songbird throughout its annual cycle. J. Anim. Ecol. 71:296-308.

Sillett, T. S., R. T. Holmes and T. W. Sherry. (2000). Impacts of a global climate cycle on population dynamics of a migratory songbird. Science 288:2040-2042.

Sliwa, A. (1991). Winter geographic and habitat distributions of two migratory warblers (Parulinae) in Jamaica, W.I. Master's Thesis, Berlin Free Univ., Berlin, Germany.

Sliwa, A. and T. W. Sherry. (1992). Surveying wintering warbler populations in Jamaica: point counts with and without broadcast vocalizations. Condor 94:924-936.

Sloan, S. S. (1991). Habitat and stratal differences in predation rates of artificial nests in a northern hardwoods forest: implications for breeding habitat selection by three migratory passerine warblers. Senior Honors thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.

Sloan, S. S., R. T. Holmes and T. W. Sherry. (1998). Depredation rates and predators at artificial bird nests in an unfragmented northern hardwoods forest. J. Wildl. Manag. 62:529-539.

Slud, P. (1967). The birds of Cocos Island (Costa Rica). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 134:263-295.

Small, A. (1994). California birds: their status and distribution. Vista, CA: Ibis Publ. Co.

Small-Lorenz, S. L., L. A. Culp, T. B. Ryder, T. C. Will and P. P. Marra. (2013). A blind spot in climate change vulnerability assessments. Nature Climate Change 3 (2):91-93.

Smith, A. R. (1996b). Atlas of Saskatchewan Birds. Saskatoon Natural History Society Special Publications no. 22, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Smith, R. J. and F. R. Moore. (2003). Arrival fat and reproductive performance in a long-distance passerine migrant. Oecologia 134 (3):325-331.

Smith, R. J. and F. R. Moore. (2005a). Arrival timing and seasonal reproductive performance in a long-distance migratory landbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 57 (3):231-239.

Smith, R. J. and F. R. Moore. (2005b). Fat stores of American Redstarts Setophaga ruticilla arriving at northerly breeding grounds. Journal of Avian Biology 36 (2):117-126.

Smith, R. J., F. R. Moore and C. A. May. (2007e). Stopover habitat along the shoreline of northern Lake Huron, Michigan: Emergent aquatic insects as a food resource for spring migrating landbirds. Auk 124 (1):107-121.

Smith, R. J., M. J. Hamas, D. N. Ewert and M. E. Dallman. (2004c). Spatial foraging differences in American Redstarts along the shoreline of northern Lake Huron during spring migration. Wilson Bulletin 116 (1):48-55.

Smith, R. J., S. E. Mabey and F. R. Moore. (2009b). Spring passage and arrival patterns of American Redstarts in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121 (2):290-297.

Sodhi, N. S., C. A. Paszkowski and S. Keehn. (1999). Scale-dependent habitat selection by American Redstarts in aspen-dominated forest fragments. Wilson Bulletin 111 (1):70-75.

Spector, D. A. (1992). Wood-warbler song systems: a review of Paruline singing behaviors. Curr. Ornithol. 9:199-238.

Spellman, C. B., R. E. Lemon and M. M. J. Morris. (1987). Color dichromatism in female American Redstarts. Wilson Bulletin 99:257-261.

Staicer, C. A., V. Ingalls and T. W. Sherry. (2006). Singing behavior varies with breeding status of American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118 (4):439-451.

Stephens, D. A. and S. H. Sturts. (1991). Idaho bird distribution. Idaho State Univ., Pocatello: Idaho Mus. Nat. Hist.

Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. (1994b). The birdlife of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Stewart, P. A. (1983b). Independent fall migration of first-year and older wood warblers. N. Am. Bird Bander 8:153-155.

Stewart, P. A. (1986). Fall migration of twelve species of wood warblers through coastal Virginia. N. Am. Bird Bander 11:83-86.

Stewart, P. A. (1989a). Migratory movements of banded American Redstarts. N. Am. Bird Bander 14:78.

Stewart, R. E. (1975b). Breeding birds of North Dakota. Fargo, ND: Tri-College Center for Environ. Studies.

Stiles, F. G. and A. Skutch. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

Stone, W. (1896). The molting of birds with special reference to the plumages of smaller land birds of eastern North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 43:108-164.

Streby, H. M., S. M. Peterson and D. E. Andersen. (2011a). Invertebrate availability and vegetation characteristics explain use of nonnesting cover types by mature-forest songbirds during the postfledging period. Journal of Field Ornithology 82 (4):406-414.

Streby, H. M., S. M. Peterson, T. L. McAllister and D. E. Andersen. (2011b). Use of early-successional managed northern forest by mature-forest species during the post-fledging period. Condor 113 (4):817-824.

Studd, M. V. and R. J. Robertson. (1985b). Life span, competition, and delayed plumage maturation in male passerines: the breeding threshold hypothesis. Am. Nat. 126:101-115.

Studds, C. E. and P. P. Marra. (2005). Nonbreeding habitat occupancy and population processes: An upgrade experiment with a migratory bird. Ecology 86 (9):2380-2385.

Studds, C. E. and P. P. Marra. (2007). Linking fluctuations in rainfall to nonbreeding season performance in a long-distance migratory bird, Setophaga ruticilla. Climate Research 35 (1-2):115-122.

Studds, C. E. and P. P. Marra. (2011). Rainfall-induced changes in food availability modify the spring departure programme of a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 278 (1723):3437-3443.

Studds, C. E. and P. P. Marra. (2012). Reconsidering the role of precipitation and food availability in relation to the effect of photoperiod on spring departure of a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 279 (1726):17-18.

Studds, C. E., T. K. Kyser and P. P. Marra. (2008). Natal dispersal driven by environmental conditions interacting across the annual cycle of a migratory songbird. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (8):2929-2933.

Sturm, L. (1945). A study of the nesting activities of the American Redstart. Auk 62:189-206.

Taylor, C. M. and D. R. Norris. (2010). Population dynamics in migratory networks. Theoretical Ecology 3 (2):65-73.

Terborgh, J. (1989). Where have all the birds gone? Essays on the biology and conservation of birds that migrate to the American tropics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Thompson, M. C. and C. Ely. (1992). Birds in Kansas, Vol. II. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. Public Ed. Ser. 12.

Toms, J. D. (2011). Non-breeding competition between migrant American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) and resident Adelaide’s Warblers (Dendroica adelaidae) in the Guánica Biosphere Reserve, southwest Puerto Rico, University of Missouri, Columbia.

Toms, J. D. (2013). Linking behavior and community ecology: Interspecific aggression provides evidence for competition between a migrant and resident warbler. Ethology 119 (12):1057-1066.

Tonra, C. M., K. L. D. Marini, P. P. Marra, R. R. Germain, R. L. Holberton and M. W. Reudink. (2014). Color expression in experimentally regrown feathers of an overwintering migratory bird: Implications for signaling and seasonal interactions. Ecology and Evolution 4 (8):1222-1232.

Tonra, C. M., P. P. Marra and R. L. Holberton. (2011). Migration phenology and winter habitat quality are related to circulating androgen in a long-distance migratory bird. Journal of Avian Biology 42 (5):397-404.

Tonra, C. M., P. P. Marra and R. L. Holberton. (2013). Experimental and observational studies of seasonal interactions between overlapping life history stages in a migratory bird. Hormones and Behavior 64 (5):825-832.

Veit, R. R. and W. R. Petersen. (1993). The birds of Massachusetts. Lincoln, MA: Massachussetts Audubon Society.

Waide, R. B., J. T. Emlen and E. J. Tramer. (1980). "Distribution of migrant birds in the Yucatán Peninsula: a survey." In Migrant birds in the Neotropics: ecology, behavior, distribution, and conservation., edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, 165-171. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Watt, D. J. (1980). Red-bellied Woodpecker predation on nestling American Redstarts. Wilson Bulletin 92:249.

Weary, D. M., R. E. Lemon and S. Perreault. (1992). Song repertoires do not hinder neighbor-stranger discrimination. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31:441-447.

Weary, D. M., R. E. Lemon and S. Perreault. (1994a). Different responses to different song types in American Redstarts. Auk 111:730-734.

Webb, W. L., D. F. Behrend and B. Saisom. (1977). Effects of logging on songbird populations in a northern hardwood forest. Wildl. Monogr. 55.

Webster, M. S. and P. P. Marra. (2005). "The importance of understanding migratory connectivity and seasonal interactions." In Birds of two worlds: The ecology and evolution of migration, edited by R. Greenberg and P. P. Marra, 199-209. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Welsh, C. J. E. and W. M. Healy. (1993). Effect of even-aged timber management on bird species diversity and composition in northern hardwoods of New Hampshire. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 21:143-154.

Wetmore, A. (1916a). Birds of Porto Rico. U.S. Dep. Agric. Bull. 326.

Wetmore, A. (1940c). Notes on the birds of Kentucky. Proc U.S. National Museum 88 (3089):529-574.

Wetmore, A. (1949). Geographic variation in the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 39:137-139.

Whelan, C. J. (2001). Foliage structure influences foraging of insectivorous forest birds: An experimental study. Ecology 82:219-231.

Whitcomb, R. F., C. S. Robbins, J. F. Lynch, M. K. Klimkiewicz, B. L. Whitcomb and D. Bystrak. (1981). "Effects of forest fragmentation on avifauna of the eastern deciduous forest." In Forest island dynamics in man-dominated landscapes., edited by R. L. Burgess and D. M. Sharpe, 125-206. New York: Ecol. Stud. no. 41. Springer-Verlag.

Williamson, P. (1971). Feeding ecology of the Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) and associated foliage-gleaning birds. Ecol. Monogr. 41:129-152.

Wilson, A. M., D. W. Brauning, and R. S. Mulvihill. (2012). Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA, USA.

Wilson, S., P. P. Marra and T. S. Sillett. (2013b). The effects of experimental irrigation on plant productivity, insect abundance and the non-breeding season performance of a migratory songbird. PLoS One 8 (1):e55114.

Wilson, S., S. L. LaDeau, A. P. Tøttrup and P. P. Marra. (2011b). Range-wide effects of breeding- and nonbreeding-season climate on the abundance of a Neotropical migrant songbird. Ecology 92 (9):1789-1798.

Winker, K., D. W. Warner and A. R. Weisbrod. (1992d). Migration of woodland birds at a fragmented inland stopover site. Wilson Bulletin 104 (4):580-598.

Wolfe, J. D., T. B. Ryder and P. Pyle. (2010). Using molt cycles to categorize the age of tropical birds: An integrative new system. Journal of Field Ornithology 81 (2):186-194.

Woodrey, M. S. (1995). Stopover behavior and age-specific ecology of Neotropical passerine migrant landbirds during autumn along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

Woodrey, M. S. and C. R. Chandler. (1997). Age-related timing of migration: Geographic and interspecific patterns. Wilson Bulletin 109:52-67.

Woodrey, M. S. and F. R. Moore. (1997). Age-related differences in the stopover of fall landbird migrants on the coast of Alabama. Auk 114 (4):695-707.

Wunderle, Jr., J. M. and R. B. Wade. (1993). Distribution of overwintering nearctic migrants in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Condor 95:904-933.

Wunderle, Jr., J. M. and S. C. Latta. (2000). Winter site fidelity of Nearctic migrants in shade coffee plantations of different sizes in the Dominican Republic. Auk 117:596-614.

Yahner, R. H. (2003). Responses of bird communities to early successional habitat in a managed landscape. Wilson Bulletin 115 (3):292-298.

Yarrow, R. M. (1970). Changes in redstart breeding territory. Auk 87:358-361.

Yezerinac, S. M. (1993). American Redstarts using Yellow Warblers' nests. Wilson Bulletin 105:529-531.

Zeranski, J. D. and T. R. Baptist. (1990). Connecticut birds. Hanover, NH: Univ. Press of New England.

Recommended Citation

Sherry, T. W., R. T. Holmes, P. Pyle, and M. A. Patten (2016). American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), version 3.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.amered.03